(Poem #410) The Negro Speaks of Rivers
I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers. My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
A theme which anywhere else would have sounded pretentious (even a touch racist, in the title) is here imbued with a quiet dignity... I especially like the wonderful 'richness' of its tone. thomas. [Biography] Hughes, (James Mercer) Langston b. Feb. 1, 1902, Joplin, Mo., U.S. d. May 22, 1967, New York City Black poet and writer who became, through numerous translations, one of the foremost interpreters to the world of the black experience in the United States. Hughes's parents separated soon after his birth, and young Hughes was raised by his mother and grandmother. After his grandmother's death, he and his mother moved to half a dozen cities before reaching Cleveland, where they settled. His poem "The Negro Speaks of Rivers," written the summer after his graduation from high school in Cleveland, was published in Crisis (1921) and brought him considerable attention. After attending Columbia University (1921-22), he explored Harlem, forming a permanent attachment to what he called the "great dark city." He worked as a steward on a freighter bound for Africa. Back from seafaring and sojourning in Europe, he won an Opportunity magazine poetry prize in 1925. He received the Witter Bynner Undergraduate Poetry Award in 1926. While working as a busboy in a hotel in Washington, D.C., Hughes put three of his own poems beside the plate of Vachel Lindsay in the dining room. The next day, newspapers around the country reported that Lindsay had discovered a Negro busboy poet. A scholarship to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania followed, and before Hughes received his degree in 1929, his first two books had been published. The Weary Blues (1926) was warmly received. Fine Clothes to the Jew (1927) was criticized harshly for its title and for its frankness, but Hughes himself felt it represented a step forward. A few months after graduation Not Without Laughter (1930), his first prose work, had a cordial reception. In the '30s his poetry became preoccupied with political militancy; he travelled widely in the Soviet Union, Haiti, and Japan and served as a newspaper correspondent (1937) in the Spanish Civil War. He published a collection of short stories, The Ways of White Folks (1934), and The Big Sea (1940), his autobiography up to the age of 28. Hughes wrote A Pictorial History of the Negro in America (1956), and the anthologies The Poetry of the Negro (1949) and The Book of Negro Folklore (1958; with Arna Bontemps). He also wrote numerous works for the stage, including the lyrics for Street Scene, an opera with music by Kurt Weill. A posthumous book of poems, The Panther and the Lash (1967), reflected the black anger and militancy of the 1960s. Hughes translated the poetry of Federico García Lorca and Gabriela Mistral. He was also widely known for his comic character Jesse B. Semple, familiarly called Simple, who appeared in Hughes's columns in the Chicago Defender and the New York Post and later in book form and on the stage. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, ed. by Arnold Rampersad and David Roessel, appeared in 1994. -- EB [Links] There's an essay on Langston Hughes and the 'Harlem Renaissance' at the Smithsonian, [broken link] http://www.tsa.si.edu/disctheater/sweet/tss03.htm [On Rivers] The Nile, the Amazon, the Ganges, the Mississippi, the Congo, the Yangtze, the Amur, the Don, the Volga, the Tiber, the Tigris and the Euphrates... rivers have long been the source from which our civilization springs. And they're celebrated in our culture as well, from Horatius at the Bridge to Steamboat Willie. I leave you with this quick quiz - identify the poems from which these river quotes are taken: 1. 'At sixteen you departed, You went into far Ku-to-en, by the river of swirling eddies, And you have been gone five months.' 2. 'Sweet Thames, run softly, till I end my song!' (two possible answers!) 3. 'Oh, Tiber! Father Tiber! To whom the Romans pray, A Roman's life, a Roman's arms, Take thou in charge this day!' 4. 'From the Gate of Kings the North Wind rides, and past the roaring falls; And clear and cold about the tower its loud horn calls.' 5. 'I chatter, chatter, as I flow To join the brimming river, For men may come and men may go, But I go on for ever.. ' Answers the next time I run a river poem (i.e, tomorrow, if I can find one).